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Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia

The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al. in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).

Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomatic and usually encountered as an incidental finding at imaging.


  • type I
    • mild hypoplasia
    • normally developed uncinate process
    • well developed infundibulum
  • type II
    • significant hypoplasia
    • hypoplastic/absent uncinate process
    • poorly defined or absent infundibulum
  • type III
    • profound hypoplasia
    • absent uncinate process

Article information

rID: 53978
System: Head & Neck
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Bolger classification

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