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Brainstem

The brainstem is the most caudal part of the brain. It adjoins, is structurally continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the:

The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. It also provides the connection of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, diencephalon, cerebellum and spinal cord. Additionally, there are other brainstem nuclei.

The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also regulates the central nervous system and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle.

Some taxonomies describe the brainstem as only containing the medulla oblongata and pons, whereas others include the midbrain.

Anatomy: Brain

Anatomy: Brain

Article information

rID: 5793
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: illustration - brainstem
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  • Figure 2: diagram - brainstem
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  • Figure 3: illustration - brainstem - sagittal image
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  • Figure 4: diagram - brainstem
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  • Figure 5: diagram - brainstem
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  • Figure 6: embryology
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  • Figure 7: arterial vascular territories (illustration)
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  • Figure 8: venous vascular territories (illustration)
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  • Figure 8: venous vascular territories of the medial cerebral cortex (illustration)
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  • Figure 9: decussation of fibers in the brainstem (Gray's illustration)
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  • Figure 10: brainstem tracts (Gray's illustrations)
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  • Figure 11: brainstem tracts (Gray's illustrations)
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  • Figure 12: brainstem tracts (Gray's illustrations)
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  • Figure 13: brainstem cross-sectional anatomy (diagrams)
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  • Figure 14: brainstem arterial territories
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