Hypotelorism refers to an abnormal decrease in distance between any two organs although some authors use the term synonymously with orbital hypotelorism meaning an abnormal decrease in the distance between the two eyes (the eyes appear too close together). The article mainly focuses on the latter.
The majority of cases of orbital hypotelorism are associated with other anomalies. Such recognized associations include:
- aneuploidic syndromic
- non-aneuploidic syndromic
Can be assessed by measuring the interocular distance/diameter (IOD) and the binocular diameter (BOD) both of which are typically reduced with hypotelorism. These are best measured in the axial plane.
- 1. Trout T, Budorick NE, Pretorius DH et-al. Significance of orbital measurements in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 1994;13 (12): 937-43. J Ultrasound Med (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Kuo HC, Chang FM, Wu CH et-al. Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of hypotelorism. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 1990;89 (9): 803-5. - Pubmed citation
- 3. Fearon JA, Kolar JC, Munro IR. Trigonocephaly-associated hypotelorism: is treatment necessary? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996;97 (3): 503-9. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (link) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Mernagh JR, Mohide PT, Lappalainen RE et-al. US assessment of the fetal head and neck: a state-of-the-art pictorial review. Radiographics. 1999;19 Spec No : S229-41. - Pubmed citation
- 5. Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH. Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781732115. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon