Iron is a transition metal with atomic number 26 and an atomic weight of 55.847 g/mol. It exists in two main oxidation states: ferric (Fe (III) or Fe3+) and ferrous (Fe (II) or Fe2+) forms.
There are four stable isotopes of iron, of which iron-56, the commonest on earth accounts for 91.7%, whilst iron-54, the second commonest isotope comprises a further 5.8%. Iron-57 comprises most of the rest of global iron (2.1 %) and iron-58 only a tiny percentage (0.2%) 4. A further 27 unstable isotopes are known, with the one showing most promise in nuclear medicine being iron-52 (half-life 8.3 hours), which is a positron emitter and is used for PET 4,5.
In the normal diet iron may be found in meat, eggs, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables.
Generally iron in food is in the ferric (Fe3+) form but the body absorbs elemental iron in the ferrous (Fe2+) form. Reduction from ferric to ferrous forms is assisted to a great extent by gastric juice, which puts the iron into solution and allows it to complex with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and other substances that reduce the iron. This is reflected in the iron deficient state that results following a removal of part or all of the stomach, without adequate iron replacement therapy.
Iron is of central importance as a key constituent of:
- cytochromes in the electron transport chain
Primarily results in iron-deficiency anemia.
Iron-containing fumes have been implicated as a precipitant in metal fume fever, although this is contentious 3.
- iron-52 in PET 4,5
- iron-59, used for many years for ferrokinetic research and clinical use 4,5
- 1. Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. Barman, Scott Boitano, Heddwen Brooks. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology 25th Edition. (2015) ISBN: 9780071848978
- 2. William Alexander Newman Dorland. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. (2018) ISBN: 9781416023647
- 3. Greenberg MI, Vearrier D. Metal fume fever and polymer fume fever. (2015) Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.). 53 (4): 195-203. doi:10.3109/15563650.2015.1013548 - Pubmed
- 4. Norman E. Holden, Tyler B. Coplen, John K. Böhlke, Lauren V. Tarbox, Jacqueline Benefield, John R. de Laeter, Peter G. Mahaffy, Glenda O’Connor, Etienne Roth, Dorothy H. Tepper, Thomas Walczyk, Michael E. Wieser, Shigekazu Yoneda. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). (2018) Pure and Applied Chemistry. 90 (12): 1833. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0703
- 5. Gary J.R Cook, M. N Maisey, K.E Britton, Vaseem Chengazi. Clinical Nuclear Medicine Fourth Edition. (2006) ISBN: 9780340812396
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