Manganese (chemical symbol Mn) is one of the essential trace elements. It has an important biological role in the synthetic pathway for mucopolysaccharides, and it also is a cofactor for several enzymes.
Manganese has the atomic number 25 with an atomic weight of 54.94. It is a transition metal.
Manganese-55 is the only stable isotope. There are a large number (almost 30) of unstable isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 44 to 73 8.
Diet, absorption, transport and storage
In the normal human diet, manganese is primarily found in legumes, nuts and pulses, with smaller concentrations in leafy vegetables, tea, chocolate and several fruits (e.g. pineapple) 3.
Manganese has many important roles, including:
- formation and activation of enzymes, e.g. oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases
- metabolizing carbohydrates and lipids
- synthesis of proteins, vitamin B complex and vitamin C
Manganese deficiency is not seen in humans 1.
Overexposure to manganese is typically due to occupational exposure or with environmental exposure to air and water pollution. Manganese toxicity, whether acute or chronic, is known as manganism and may lead to parkinsonism 3.
Manganese-containing fumes have also been implicated as a precipitant in metal fume fever, although this is contentious 5.
- 1. William Alexander Newman Dorland. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. (2018) ISBN: 9781416023647
- 2. Li L, Yang X. The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. (2018) Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2018: 7580707. doi:10.1155/2018/7580707 - Pubmed
- 3. Chen P, Chakraborty S, Mukhopadhyay S, Lee E, Paoliello MM, Bowman AB, Aschner M. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system. (2015) Journal of neurochemistry. 134 (4): 601-10. doi:10.1111/jnc.13170 - Pubmed
- 4. O'Neal SL, Zheng W. Manganese Toxicity Upon Overexposure: a Decade in Review. (2015) Current environmental health reports. 2 (3): 315-28. doi:10.1007/s40572-015-0056-x - Pubmed
- 5. Greenberg MI, Vearrier D. Metal fume fever and polymer fume fever. (2015) Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.). 53 (4): 195-203. doi:10.3109/15563650.2015.1013548 - Pubmed
- 6. Riordan RD, Khonsari M, Jeffries J, Maskell GF, Cook PG. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation. (2004) The British journal of radiology. 77 (924): 991-9. doi:10.1259/bjr/36674326 - Pubmed
- 7. Gale EM, Wey HY, Ramsay I, Yen YF, Sosnovik DE, Caravan P. A Manganese-based Alternative to Gadolinium: Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography, Excretion, Pharmacokinetics, and Metabolism. (2018) Radiology. 286 (3): 865-872. doi:10.1148/radiol.2017170977 - Pubmed
- 8. Norman E. Holden, Tyler B. Coplen, John K. Böhlke, Lauren V. Tarbox, Jacqueline Benefield, John R. de Laeter, Peter G. Mahaffy, Glenda O’Connor, Etienne Roth, Dorothy H. Tepper, Thomas Walczyk, Michael E. Wieser, Shigekazu Yoneda. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). (2018) Pure and Applied Chemistry. 90 (12): 1833. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0703
- 9. Brandt M, Cardinale J, Rausch I, Mindt TL. Manganese in PET imaging: Opportunities and challenges. (2019) Journal of labelled compounds & radiopharmaceuticals. 62 (8): 541-551. doi:10.1002/jlcr.3754 - Pubmed
Related Radiopaedia articles
- basic organic elements
- essential bulk elements
- essential trace elements
- non-essential elements
- tumor markers
- fat-soluble vitamins
- vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- vitamin B3 (niacin)
- vitamin B5
- vitamin B6
- biotin (vitamin B7)
- vitamin B9 (folate/folic acid)
- vitamin B12
- vitamin C
- B vitamins