The sphenoid bone is a large, complex, unpaired bone forming the central parts of the anterior and central skull base.
Parts of the sphenoid bone include:
The sphenoid bone articulates with twelve bones:
- unpaired bones include: frontal, ethmoid, vomer, and occipital
- paired bones include: zygomatic, parietal, temporal, and palatine.
Fissures, foramina, grooves and canals
The sphenoid bone includes:
- optic canal
- superior orbital fissure
- foramen rotundum
- pterygoid canal
- foramen ovale
- foramen spinosum
- carotid groove
History and etymology
Galen (129-199) first described the bone by this name. It is derived from the Greek σφήν (sphen) meaning wedge. Some sources claim that the intended name was sphecoid, derived from Greek σφηξ (sphex) meaning wasp, but was inaccurately copied or translated 4,5.
- 1. McMINN. Lasts Anatomy Regional and Applied. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. (2003) ISBN:B0084AQDG8. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Gray's Anatomy (40e). Churchill Livingstone. (2011) ISBN:0443066841. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Standring S. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice - 40th edition. Publication city not listed: Elsevier limited; 2008. Figure 31.2
- 4. Chmielewski PP. New Terminologia Anatomica: Cranium and extracranial bones of head. (2019) Folia morphologica. doi:10.5603/FM.a2019.0129 - Pubmed
- 5. Er K, Schmieder K, Brenke C, Miller D, Parpaley Y, Gierthmühlen M. Brainatomy: A novel way of teaching sphenoid bone anatomy with a simplified three-dimensional model. (2019) World neurosurgery. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.128 - Pubmed