Cephalopagus conjoined twin (4D ultrasound)
Referred at 18 weeks gestation with a fetal abnormality for a second opinion and 4D ultrasound
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Viable intrauterine monochromic monoamniotic conjoined twin pregnancy. Study shows conjoined twin paired body parts include chest, heart, aorta, and abdomen with its abdominal vasculature. Separated paired parts include the pelvis, hip, lower limbs, and upper limbs with hands. Shared single parts, single umbilical cord.
Classification of conjoined twins depends on conjoined parts, and shared or not shared. Cephalopagus is the rarest type of conjoined twin; characterized by anterior union of the upper half of the body including the head. 3D/4D ultrasound plays great role in collecting data necessary for complete diagnosis and in confirmation of results.
- Ravi Kapoor, Ashutosh Bansal, Abhinav Aggarwal et-al. Prenatal Diagnosis of Cephalophagus Conjoined Twins by Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (2015) Journal of Fetal Medicine. 2 (1): 45. doi:10.1007/s40556-015-0039-x
- Gedikbaşı A, Yıldırım G, Saygılı S et-al. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins: four cases in a prenatal center. (2010) Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association. 11 (4): 174-7. doi:10.5152/jtgga.2010.32 - Pubmed