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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

722 results found
Article

60/60 sign (echocardiography)

The 60/60 sign in echocardiography refers to the coexistence of a truncated right ventricular outflow tract acceleration time (AT <60 ms) with a pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) of less than 60 mmHg (but more than 30 mmHg). In the presence of right ventricular failure, it is consisten...
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Absent pulmonary valve syndrome

Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) also known as congenital absence of pulmonary valve or pulmonary valve agenesis is a rare cardiac outflow tract anomaly.  Pathology It is characterized by a completely absent or rudimentary pulmonary valve. It can be associated with aneurysmal dilatation ...
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ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions

ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions is a system used to classify coronary arterial calcific plaque burden. It is classified as type A discrete (<10 mm) concentric  nonangulated segment <45º smooth contour little or no calcification less than totally occlusive not ostial in locatio...
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Accessory left atrial appendage

An accessory left atrial appendage is a frequent fortuitous finding in cardiac imaging, encountered in ~10% of patients. They are more often seen as a small diverticular structure projecting from the right upper side of the left atrial wall. Differential diagnosis it must not be confused with ...
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Ace-of-spades sign (heart)

Ace-of-spades sign refers to the pathognomonic configuration of the left ventricle as seen in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1-3. It consists of marked ventricular wall thickening at the apex resulting in cavity narrowing at the apex with a relatively normal appearance of the mid-ventricula...
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Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Acute right heart syndrome

Acute right heart syndrome (ARHS) is defined as a sudden deterioration in right ventricular (RV) function and failure of the RV to deliver adequate blood flow to the pulmonary circulation. This can result in systemic hypoperfusion. Pathology ARHS can occur in several settings 1 in the setting...
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Acyanotic congenital heart disease

Acyanotic congenital heart disease comprises numerous etiologies, which can be divided into those with increased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora) and those with normal vascularity: increased pulmonary vascularity ventricular septal defect (VSD) atrial septal defect (ASD) atrioventr...
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Adenosine

Adenosine is a vasodilating agent, which acts on the vascular smooth muscle surface and leads to vasodilation and a considerable increased vascular flow. NB: This article aims to give a summarized description of adenosine. For detailed and exact information please refer to the information and d...
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Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan, which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for early risk stratificat...
Article

Ammonia (N-13)

13NH3 is a PET tracer used for studies of myocardial perfusion imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron by proton irradiation of the enriched water of the oxygen-16. Ammonia (N-13) is administered intravenously, at a dose of 10-20 mCi (370-740 Mbq) in adults; its physical half-life is 10 minutes. ...
Article

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic shock or reaction) is an acute severe systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly presenting with urticaria/angioedema, hypotension and bronchial hyperreactivity. It may be fatal. Terminology Anaphylactoid reactions result from non-immune system ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Angina

Angina or angina pectoris is cardiac chest pain that occurs as the result of myocardial ischemia. Clinical presentation Angina is classically described as substernal chest discomfort that is of a typical quality and duration (heavy, tight, ‘bandlike’ pain that lasts for minutes at a time). Ang...
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Angiotensin converting enzyme

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which assists in blood pressure control by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. Normal individuals may have a small volume of the angiotensin converting enzyme circulating in their blood. M...
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Ankylosing spondylitis - cardiovascular manifestations

Cardiovascular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis may affect approximately 2-10% of all patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Cardiac complications had been traditionally classified into 3 main categories which include 2: aortitis and aortic insufficiency aortic root dilatation: relative...
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Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery

Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery (AAOCA) refers to a congenital coronary artery anomaly in which a coronary artery arises from a different coronary sinus. Terminology Anomalous origin of the coronary artery arising from the opposite sinus (ACOAS) is a narrower definition and refers t...
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Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but rarely it is a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
Article

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, based on onset of disease, each of which has differe...
Article

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology T...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
Article

Aortic arch view (fetal echocardiogram)

An aortic arch view is one of the additional views performed on fetal obstetric ultrasound - fetal echocardiography. It is an oblique sagittal view which is obtained similar to a left anterior oblique angiogram or the sagittal arch view obtained in CT arteriography. The isthmus, after the origin...
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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection is the prototype and most common form of acute aortic syndromes and a type of arterial dissection. It occurs when blood enters the medial layer of the aortic wall through a tear or penetrating ulcer in the intima and tracks longitudinally along with the media, forming a second ...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
Article

Aortic pseudoaneurysm versus ductus diverticulum

Differentiation of aortic pseudoaneurysm from ductus diverticulum is critical, particularly in the trauma setting. A traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a surgical emergency whereas a ductus diverticulum is a normal anatomic variant. The following are differentiating features: Aortic pseudoaneu...
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Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta containing parts of the aortic valve and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root is located between the aortic annulus (the junction of the outflow tract of the left ventricle and the aortic valve) and the si...
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Aortic root abscess

An aortic root abscess is a serious complication of infective endocarditis and most commonly seen in patients who have had aortic root repair and/or aortic valve replacement. Epidemiology Aortic root abscess occurs as a complication of infective endocarditis in 10-37% 9. Abscess formation in p...
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Aortic valve

The aortic valve (AV) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the left ventricle (LV). It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has left, right, and posterior cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrou...
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Aortic valve calcification

Aortic valve calcification can be an important incidental observation in thoracic radiography or CT imaging. It is considered a marker for clinically significant aortic stenosis. Epidemiology According to some reports, aortic valve calcification may be prevalent as an incidental finding in up ...
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Aortic valve regurgitation

Aortic valve regurgitation, also known as aortic valve insufficiency or aortic valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the aortic valve during diastole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the aorta and into the left ventricle. Epidemiology Aortic reg...
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Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvulopathy and describes narrowing of the opening of the aortic valve between the aorta and the left ventricle. Epidemiology Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy, present in up to one-quarter of all patients with chronic valvular heart dise...
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Aortomitral continuity

The aortomitral continuity (also known as the aortomitral curtain, aorticomitral junction, intervalvular fibrous body) is a fibrous sheet located between the noncoronary and left coronary leaflets of the aortic valve and anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. It is attached by the left and right ...
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Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
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Aorto-ventricular tunnel

Aorto-ventricular tunnel (AVT) is an extremely rare form of congenital heart disease, representing an anomalous extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and the left or right ventricles. Terminology In most cases the anomalous communication is between the aorta and the left ventr...
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Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM or ApHCM), also known as Yamaguchi syndrome, is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle, rarely involves the right ventricular apex, or involves both apices. Epidemiology Historically, this condit...
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Apical rocking

Apical rocking is a radiographic sign that might be seen either on echocardiography or cine imaging on cardiac MRI in the four-chamber view and refers to a movement of the cardiac apex in cardiac dyssynchrony. It is characterized by the following 1-3: short-timed movement of the apex towards th...
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Approach to shock (echocardiography)

An organized approach to shock is critical in the management of these often very sick patients. Shock - of any form - manifests as inadequate tissue perfusion, the end-point of which is multisystem organ failure and death. Echocardiography at the point-of-care is fast, non-invasive, and often p...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is a cardiomyopathy that is one of the more common causes of sudden cardiac death in young patients.  Epidemiology The estimate...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to be made, patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the ri...
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Arterial switch procedure

The arterial switch procedure, also known as the Jatene switch procedure, is an intervention designed to correct D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) at the level of the aorta and main pulmonary artery. It is generally preferred over atrial switch procedures for simple D-TGA due to impr...
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ARVC protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI ARVC protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics wil...
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Ascending aortic aneurysm

Ascending aortic aneurysms are the most common subtype of thoracic aortic aneurysms and may be true or false injuries.  Epidemiology Ascending aortic aneurysms represent 60% of thoracic aortic aneurysms.  Clinical presentation Typically ascending aortic aneurysms are an incidental finding an...
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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a generic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antiplatelet agent. It is one of the most-widely if not the most commonly used drug in the world and is listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 1-4. It is used as an over-the-coun...
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Asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common morphological variant or phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Epidemiology Approximately 60-70% of cases with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy make up for the asymmetric phenotype 1-3. Associations Asymmetric hypertrophic cardio...
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Asystole

The diagnosis of asystole refers to a cardiac arrest rhythm with no electrical activity of the heart. It is the cardiac arrest rhythm with the poorest prognosis and is often irreversible 1. Asystole is one of the non-shockable rhythms, the other being pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Clinic...
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Athlete heart syndrome

Athlete heart syndrome refers to adaptations in both cardiac structure and function seen in people engaged in high-performance and endurance physical exercise. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has increased due to the increased popularity of recreational exercise, approx 3.6/100,00...
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Atrial escape

Atrial escape refers to a chest x-ray sign of massive left atrial enlargement and is an exaggerated version of the double density sign.   Normally, the right border of the left atrium is not visible. As it enlarges it forms a distinct border projecting through the right heart shadow, medial to ...
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Atrial fibrillation

A common consequence of atrial enlargement and/or inflammation, atrial fibrillation is a dysrhythmia originating from the atria, typically recognized on the electrocardiogram. It most commonly presents as a tachyarrhythmia, with ventricular rates between 120-130 beats per minute. Defining electr...
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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterized by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria...
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Atrial septal occlusion device

Atrial septal occlusion devices are implantable cardiac devices used in patients with certain types of atrial septal defects. They are used in cases of atrial septal defects with right atrial or ventricle enlargement, to prevent paradoxical embolism, left-to-right shunting and platypnea-orthode...
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Atrial septum

The atrial or interatrial septum (IAS) is a fibromuscular anatomical structure dividing the left and right atrium and is of substantial importance for inter and interatrial conduction. Gross anatomy The true atrial septum is defined by the septal area which could be pierced or crossed without ...
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Atrial volume

The atrial volumes refer to the blood volumes of the left or right atrium and the atrial volume index is the respective atrial volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage Atrial volumes are measured for the assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac conditions causing left ...
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Atriclip device

A left atrial appendage epicardial clip or AtriClip® device is a type of left atrial appendage closure device used for treatment of conditions such as atrial fibrillation. It is applied epicardially, with no foreign body contact to the bloodstream, and applied to the base of the appendage, and t...
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Atrio-esophageal fistula

Atrio-esophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the esophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of at...
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Atrioventricular nodal artery

The atrioventricular (AV) nodal artery is a small artery supplying the atrioventricular septal area and the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy The atrioventricular nodal artery usually courses through the inferior pyramidal space of the heart. Origin The origin of the atrioventricular noda...
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Atrioventricular septal defect

Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), also known as atrioventricular canal defects or endocardial cushion defects, comprise a relatively wide range of defects involving the atrial septum, ventricular septum, and one or both of the tricuspid or mitral valve. They can represent 2-7% of congenit...
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Atrioventricular septum

The atrioventricular (AV) septum or septal atrioventricular junction forms a central part of the heart, where the interatrial and interventricular septum crosses the atrioventricular annular plane and join with the septal tricuspid and anterior mitral leaflet attachments. On a four-chamber view...
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Barlow disease (disambiguation)

Barlow disease could refer to: infantile scurvy - named after Sir Thomas Barlow (1845-1945) who demonstrated infantile scurvy to be the same disease as adult scurvy Barlow disease - mitral valve: form of mitral valve prolapse - named after John Brereton Barlow (1924-2008) 2
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Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, is an extremely rare X-linked multisystem disorder that is usually diagnosed in infancy. Epidemiology Barth syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 300,000-400,000 live births. Clinical presentation It is characte...
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Beck triad

Beck triad is a collection of three clinical signs associated with pericardial tamponade which is due to an excessive accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac.  The three signs are: low blood pressure (weak pulse or narrow pulse pressure) muffled heart sounds  raised jugular venous p...
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Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in T...
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Bentall procedure

Bentall procedure is performed for the repair of ascending aortic root lesions. Typically the native aortic root and aortic valve are replaced with a composite graft that comprises both ascending aortic and aortic valve grafts, to which the coronary arteries are anastomosed. Complications post ...
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Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size. They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
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Biventricular cardiac pacemaker

Biventricular cardiac pacemakers are surgically implanted cardiac conduction devices with one lead in each ventricle (and often one in the right atrium) used for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Components  lead in the right atrium  lead in the right ventricle  lead in the coronary sinus t...
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Blalock-Taussig shunt

Blalock-Taussig shunt, also known as Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, is a palliative procedure designed to increase pulmonary arterial blood flow in patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot) or during initial staged repair of hypoplastic left heart syndro...
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Blocked premature atrial contractions

Blocked premature atrial contractions (BPACs) are considered a type cardiac bradyarrhythmia and if occurring in utero is classified under a fetal bradyarrhythmia. Pathology It is seen when a premature atrial contraction occurs very early on and consequently, it is not conducted into the ventri...
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Blood pressure

The blood pressure (BP) is defined as the force exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Fundamentally the blood pressure depends upon the interaction of: blood volume cardiac contractility compliance of the arterial walls Blood pressure is traditionally measured i...
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Blunt cardiac injury

Most commonly a result of sudden deceleration or direct precordial impact, blunt cardiac injury (BCI) encompasses a spectrum of structural and functional cardiac derangements which may occur after trauma to the heart 7. Terminology While sometimes referred to with general terms such as "cardia...
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Body imaging

Body imaging is the term assigned to cross-sectional imaging of the body, which radiologically refers to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It is often used by radiologists who report this region (sometimes known as body imagers/radiologists) to differentiate their primary area of interest from othe...
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Boot shaped heart

A 'boot-shaped' heart ("cœur en sabot" in French) is the description given to the appearance of the heart on plain film in some cases of Tetralogy of Fallot. It describes the appearances of an upturned cardiac apex due to right ventricular hypertrophy and a concave pulmonary arterial segment. 
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Box-shaped heart

A box-shaped heart is a radiographic description given to the cardiac silhouette in some cases of Ebstein anomaly. The classic appearance of this finding is caused by the combination of the following features: huge right atrium that may fill the entire right hemithorax shelved appearance of th...
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Brugada syndrome

A cardiac "channelopathy" resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac sodium (Na+) channels, the Brugada syndrome is a common cardiac cause of sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts. Epidemiology Age of diagnosis ranges from 2 days to 84 years old. It is estimated to...
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Burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The burned-out phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy refers to the end-stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, systolic dysfunction and left ventricular wall thinning. Epidemiology The burned-out phase can be seen in 3-5% of patients with hypertrophic c...
Article

Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
Article

Calcium density score

The calcium density score is a measure to quantify coronary artery calcium. Measurement Calcium density itself describes the concentration of calcium in a specific atherosclerotic plaque 1. Calcium density can be calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of calcium. The latte...
Article

Calcium mass score

The calcium mass score was introduced to determine the absolute mass of coronary artery calcium with the help of a cardiac calibration phantom and the use of correction factors 1,4. The method itself comprises the integration of signal above a given threshold 3. Even though higher sensitivity a...
Article

Calcium volume score

The calcium volume score is a measure to quantify and calculate coronary artery calcium 1-3. Its calculation includes all voxels with a Hounsfield attenuation >130 and this is done by multiplying the volume of each voxel, determined by the area and the slice thickness with the number of voxels ...
Article

Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis (plural: amyloidoses) is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Pathology Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteina...
Article

Cardiac angiosarcoma

Cardiac angiosarcomas are the most common sarcoma involving the heart (see cardiac tumors).  Please refer to the article on angiosarcomas for a general discussion about this entity. Epidemiology They occur slightly more frequently in males.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present wi...
Article

Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is the term used for the abrupt loss of cardiac pump function such that an adequate circulation cannot be maintained. Despite recent modest improvements in survival, it usually leads to death, if not immediately treated. Arrests may be in-hospital or out-of-hospital.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
Article

Cardiac calcification

Cardiac calcification is a broad term for any calcification affecting the valves, coronary arteries, aortic root, endocardium, myocardium, and/or pericardium. Pathology Causes of cardiac calcification are: coronary artery disease (most common) coronary artery aneurysms, e.g. in Kawasaki dise...
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Cardiac chamber enlargement

Cardiac chamber enlargement can be recognized by cardiac contour changes, new or different interfaces with adjacent lung, and/or displacement of adjacent mediastinal structures. These are discussed separately: right atrial enlargement right ventricular enlargement left atrial enlargement lef...
Article

Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
Article

Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart or cardiac CT is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac f...
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Cardiac CT (an approach)

Cardiac CT can be a more or less frequent examination faced in daily practice also depending on the institution and the CT scanner technology available. With technological advances and improved dose reduction techniques in the last decade, cardiac CT has become increasingly popular. What is pre...
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Cardiac CT (prospective acquisition)

A prospective ECG gated cardiac CT angiogram, also known as the step and shoot method is considered the default or ‘bread and butter’ protocol for coronary CTA  and combines a reasonably low radiation dose with diagnostic results in most situations. Nowadays, this protocol is available on most C...
Article

Cardiac CT (prospective high-pitch acquisition)

The prospective ECG-gated high-pitch dual-source CT cardiac angiogram is a high pitch helical acquisition of the heart that is able to capture a single phase of the cardiac cycle, a dual-source scanner is required to perform it. Although this is the CT cardiac angiogram with the lowest dose it a...
Article

Cardiac CT (retrospective acquisition)

A retrospective ECG-gated cardiac CT is usually conducted in cases in which adequate control of heart rate cannot be achieved or in which additional information on ventricular or valvular function is required. Indications Please refer to our coronary CT angiography article for general indicati...
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Cardiac curriculum

The cardiac curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core cardiac knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the heart and pericardium, but excluding the mediastinum (see: chest curriculum) and great vessels (see: vascular curricul...

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