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2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

The 2014 WHO classification is one of the classification systems for endometrial stromal tumors (EST). Endometrial stromal tumors constitute <2% of all uterine tumors and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modificat...

Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...

Gynecologic imaging reporting and data system (GI-RADS)

The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography. Classification Findings are classified into five categories 1: GI-RADS 1 normal ovaries identified and no adn...


Hydrometra is a descriptive term that refers to a distended uterus filled with clear, non-infected fluid. See also hematometra pyometra hydrometrocolpos hydrocolpos endometrial fluid

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, end...

Müllerian duct anomaly classification

The Müllerian duct anomaly classification is a seven-class system that can be used to describe a number of embryonic Müllerian duct anomalies: class I: uterine agenesis/uterine hypoplasia a: vaginal (uterus: normal/variety of abnormal forms) b: cervical c: fundal d: tubal e: combined clas...

Ovarian-adnexal reporting and data system

The ovarian-adnexal reporting and data system (O-RADS) is an ultrasound risk stratification and management system for the evaluation of ovarian and other adnexal masses. These recommendations function have been published to guide the management of "average-risk patients without acute symptoms" ...

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynecological imaging, and vary widely in etiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Pathology Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnan...

Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...

Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to an ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries, the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with advers...

Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumors

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumors is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum CA...

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumors

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumors are a subtype of ovarian tumors and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumors. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary: stromal cells primitive sex cords: coelomic epithelium The group of tumors includes ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum ovarian fibro...

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Subtypes There are three forms of true hermaphroditism: unilateral true hermaphroditism ...

Uterine biophysical profile

Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.  Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS) The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle: 1. endometrial thickne...

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...

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