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Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...


Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology Massive hemoptysis is referred t...

Iliac vein occlusion

Iliac vein occlusion can be due to a variety of causes including: iatrogenic neonatal catheters catheter dissection injuries  IVC filter insertion dialysis catheters malignancy-related direct tumor invasion radiotherapy  enlarged lymph nodes hypercoagulable state prior DVTs May-Thrun...

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognized, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...

Prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.  Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...

Transitional aneurysm

Transitional aneurysms, also referred to as transitional paraclinoid aneurysms, are saccular cerebral aneurysms arising from the clinoid-ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and neat the distal dural ring with potential risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage. After an anterior turn...

Tumor ablation

Tumor ablation, or image-guided tumor ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and nonthermal) treatments to cause local tumor destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (MWA)...

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