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CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient procedure where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed ...

Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...

Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve, also known as the flutter valve, is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can stil...


Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...

Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...

Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...

Peripherally inserted central catheter

Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis). They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization

Preoperative pulmonary nodule localization is a CT-guided procedure where a marker is applied to a usually small lung lesion to assist its surgical identification and resection. The widespread use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the advance in robotically assisted surgical interven...

Pulmonary artery catheter

Pulmonary artery catheters (or Swan-Ganz catheters) are balloon flotation catheters that can be inserted simply, quickly, with little training and without fluoroscopic guidance, at the bedside, even in the seriously ill patient. Historically they were widely used to measure right heart hemodynam...

Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...


Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural tap or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thor...

Thoracic duct embolization

Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) is a safe, efficacious treatment for chylothorax 1. Chylothoraces with a low drain output (<1L/day) are traditionally managed conservatively with dietary change, while high output (>1L/d) are managed with surgical thoracic duct (TD) ligation 2.Thoracic duct embo...

Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheobronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or esophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treatme...

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