The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic:
C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion
E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma
Useful mnemonics to remember the symptoms of acute stroke are:
F = face (look uneven?)
A = arm (drift down?)
S = speech (sound strange or difficulty speaking)
T = time (brain cells die every second)
B = balance (sudden loss of balance)
E = eye (sudd...
Aging blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MRI signal characteristics of hemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of aging blood through the five stages...
The ASCOD classification system 1, published in 2013, aims to define phenotypes of ischemic strokes for individual patients by assigning a degree of probability to each of the most common causes of this pathology.
It serves most strictly as a research tool but is also useful clinically as a mne...
This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that correspond to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing:
E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I)
C: cochlear nucleus (wave II)
O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III)
A mnemonic to help recall the causes of basilar invagination is:
P: Paget disease of bone
F: fibrous dysplasia
R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets
O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia
C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis
Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include:
Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer
Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer
Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers
Reach To Drink Cold Beer
Read That Damn Cadaver Book
Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch)
Red Toucans Don't Come Back
In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is:
Old Elephants Age Gracefully
A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly:
How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited
D: drug effects
D: diabetes mellitus
E: electrolyte imbalance
The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic:
V: vascular, vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate
A: Alzheimer disease, autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus
N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia
I: infection, e.g. Creutzfeldt...
The cavernous sinus contents (structures within the sinus proper and also in its lateral wall) and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic:
O TOM CAT
Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus.
'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of...
Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include:
AMEN or MEAN
A: acoustic neuroma (a.k.a. vestibular schwannoma) (~80%)
M: meningioma (~10%)
E: ependymoma (~5%)
N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid) (~5%)
Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are:
MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC
DR MAGIC L
MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC
I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma
A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is:
I MADE A PHD
I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)
M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome
A: AIDS encephalopathy
D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury
A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is:
Remember Genu Before Splenium
Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically)
B: body (trunk)
A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumors is:
P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma
There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both.
Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII:
A useful mnemonic to remember differential diagnoses associated with a dural tail sign is:
My Scary Dog Likes To Stand Guard
D: dural metastases
A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is:
Blood Can Be Very Bad
Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed.
look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is:
I: inferior rectus
M: medial rectus
S: superior rectus
L: lateral rectus
O: obliques muscles (superior oblique and inferior oblique)
There is some deba...
There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include:
Tall Zulus Bear Many Children
Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx
Ten Zebras Buggered My Car
To Zanzibar By Motor Car
Two Zombies Buggered...
Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include:
I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1
I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts
both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve
I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions
A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic intracranial metastases is:
MR CT BB
R: renal cell carcinoma
T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma
B: bronchogenic carcinoma
B: breast carcinoma
The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault.
A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is:
Seven up, Coke down
Four nerves pass through the IAC:
facial nerve (CN VII)
three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc)
superior vestibular n...
A useful mnemonic to remember the features of intracranial hypotension is:
S: subdural fluid collections
E: enhancement of the pachymeninges
E: engorgement of the venous sinuses
P: pituitary hyperemia
S: sagging brain
A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of intramedullary spinal masses is:
Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of at least two criteria to confirm the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) 1.
These diagnostic criteria can be remembered with the mnemonic:
C: café-au-lait spots (greater than six seen during one year)
A: axillary or ingui...
Useful mnemonics for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are:
rule of 2s
M: meningiomas and
In fact, labeling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its cons...
The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic:
wet, wacky, wobbly
wet: urinary incontinence
wacky: dementia (memory disturbance)
wobbly: gait disturbance
Tumors of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic:
The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common.
B: brainstem glioma
A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%)
A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is:
Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery.
Useful mnemonics for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses (in addition to macroadenoma) are:
SOME ACTH HORMONE
T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)
C: craniopharyngioma, cleft ...
The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic:
P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA)
A: anterior choroidal
The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior i...
A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is:
Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P
SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension)
nerve to piriformis (S1-S2)
A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is:
Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North
C: central lobule
Mnemonic for all structures passing through the superior orbital fissure (superior to inferior) include:
Long Fissures Seem To Store Only Nerves, Instead Of Arteries, Including Ophthalmic Veins
Mnemonics for the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure include:
Lazy French Tarts Si...
A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is:
N: neurodegenerative conditions
For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article.
The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic:
Ch: childhood hypoxia
O: old age
M: multiple sclerosis
P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
Toxic leukoencephalopathy has myriad causes, the more common of which can be remembered with an acronymic mnemonic:
See the main article for details: toxic leukoencephalopathy.
O: other opioids
I: immunosuppressant medication or imidazole
A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is:
Standing Room Only
S: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve)
R: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve)