Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

6 results found

Angiotensin converting enzyme

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which assists in blood pressure control by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. Normal individuals may have a small volume of the angiotensin converting enzyme circulating in their blood. M...

Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is a key enzyme, for energy production in mitochondria and muscle tissues. It is important as a diagnostic assay in clinical practice, primarily because inflamed/injured muscle releases creatine kinase into the circulation 1. Phy...


Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...

Pulmonary interstitial edema

Pulmonary interstitial edema represents a form of pulmonary edema resulting from pathological fluid buildup in the interstitial spaces due to increased hydrostatic driving pressure. Pathology Interstitial lung edema arises almost exclusively due to an increase of the pulmonary capillary hydros...

Starling forces

The Starling forces describe the movement of fluids between the vasculature and interstitial spaces. Fluid movement is determined by the balance of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients 1. Starling forces Net pressure = [ (Pc - Pi) - (pc - pi) ] where: Pc = hydrostatic pressure of the c...

Vulnerable plaque

Vulnerable or high-risk plaque refers to coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions with features associated with future acute coronary events, independent of luminal stenosis. Clinical presentation The relevant clinical sequelae of vulnerable plaque are acute coronary syndromes, which present as...

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