Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is a key enzyme, for energy production in mitochondria and muscle tissues. It is important as a diagnostic assay in clinical practice, primarily because inflamed/injured muscle releases creatine kinase into the circulation 1.
Distal femoral fractures involve the femoral condyles and the metaphyseal region and are often the result of high energy trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or a fall from a height. In the elderly, they can occur as a domestic accident 1-3.
They are quite rare and represent 3-6...
Elbow instability refers to as an excessive usually painful mobility in the elbow joint, most of the time as a result of a prior traumatic event or overuse and maybe also seen in patients with connective tissue disease 1,2.
Elbow instability can be classified in respect of ti...
Fracture healing occurs naturally after traumatic bony disruption. This process begins with hemorrhage and progresses through three stages:
This process can be supported by various treatment options with immobilization a mainstay; inappropriate treatment m...
Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening.
The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Lumbar spine fractures are often a result of significant blunt trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or a fall from height. Non-traumatic causes include osteoporotic and pathological fractures.
Traumatic fractures are more common in males. The risk of osteoporotic fractures incre...
Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5:
Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...
Monomelic is typically used to refer to a condition that is confined to only one limb. Examples of conditions that can be monomelic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis.
Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis.
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors are the cause of the vast majority of cases of tumor-induced (oncogenic) osteomalacia due to the production of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23).
These tumors are extremely rare, with fewer than 500 cases reported in the literature 1. Most occur ...
Polyostotic is term used to describe a condition involving multiple bones.
Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis.
Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an immunoglobulin initially described in association with rheumatoid arthritis. It is an IgM antibody against the FC portion of the IgG antibodies. Ongoing research has identified a group related immunoglobulins, classed as rheumatoid factors (RFs) and despite extensive...
A subchondral fracture is a fracture of the trabecular cancellous bone just beneath the subchondral bone plate without disruption of the articular surface 1.
Subchondral insufficiency fractures are more common in elderly women 1,4,6. Subchondral fractures due to trauma can occur a...
Trochlear dysplasia refers to a dysplastic deformity of the femoral trochlea and is a known risk factor for patellofemoral instability.
The reported prevalence of trochlear dysplasia in recurrent patellar dislocations is up to 85% 1. The latter is most common in the adolescent age...
Vitamin A are a group of fat-soluble vitamers (the retinoids) required for many physiological functions, mainly vision, reproduction and epithelial maintenance. In the retina, a specific retinoid, 11-cis-retinal, is formed by photoisomerisation within the rods and cones.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme for the formation of the structure protein collagen, particularly creating cross-linking of collagen fibers which greatly increases its tensile strength. It also acts as an antioxidant.
History and etymology
Vitamin C was ...
Vitamin D (calciferol) is used to describe a group of five fat-soluble secosteroid vitamins required for the homeostasis of serum calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D exists in two main forms (vitamers) in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
Vitamin D3 acts by re...
Vitamin D deficiency (also known as hypovitaminosis D) is common, and untreated, may result in serious sequelae. Traditionally its pathological manifestations have been regarded through the lens of skeletal maturity:
rickets in children
osteomalacia in adults
However it has become increasingl...