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Cholangiocarcinoma (staging)

Cholangiocarcinoma staging is dependent on whether the tumor is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic. Tumor resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumor to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along the biliary tree necess...

Hepatoblastoma (staging)

As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma. Staging PRETEXT grouping system of pediatric liver tumors not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all pediatric liver tumors Intergroup staging system specific for hepatoblastoma (see below) Intergroup staging ...

Hepatocellular carcinoma (staging)

Hepatocellular carcinoma staging classifications supersede the typical TNM staging system seen in most other epithelial cancers, as the TNM staging system has been found to not be as prognostically useful for stratification of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Several substitute staging sy...

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (staging - AJCC/UICC 8th edition)

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) introduced a unique staging system for the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in their 7th edition in 2010. They further refined the staging system in the 8th edition. TNM system T: primary tumor Tx: prim...

Liver cancer (BCLC staging)

Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging uses a set of criteria to guide the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification takes the following variables into account 1,2: performance status (PS)  Child-Pugh score radiologic tumor extent tumor size multi...

Okuda staging system

The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1: disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma ascites albumin ≤3 mg/dL bilirubi...

Pediatric liver tumor (PRETEXT grouping system)

The PRETEXT system proposed by the International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumor Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumors at diagnosis.  It is used to describe ...

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is traditionally done according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) / Union for International Cancer Control (IUCC) TNM system.  In 2017 new edition (8th edition) AJCC published with some major changes; now exocrine and endocrine tumors of the...

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