Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are:
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM or ApHCM), also known as Yamaguchi syndrome, is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle, rarely involves the right ventricular apex, or involves both apices.
Historically, this condit...
Athlete heart syndrome refers to adaptations in both cardiac structure and function seen in people engaged in high-performance and endurance physical exercise.
The prevalence of the condition has increased due to the increased popularity of recreational exercise, approx 3.6/100,00...
Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, is an extremely rare X-linked multisystem disorder that is usually diagnosed in infancy.
Barth syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 300,000-400,000 live births.
It is characte...
A cardiac "channelopathy" resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac sodium (Na+) channels, the Brugada syndrome is a common cardiac cause of sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts.
Age of diagnosis ranges from 2 days to 84 years old. It is estimated to...
Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include:
anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung
Constrictive pericardial syndromes include 1:
transient constrictive pericarditis
a complication of acute (inflammatory) pericarditis in which the inflamed pericardium causes constrictive hemodynamics
resolution occurs within several weeks
chronic constrictive pericarditis
persistence of c...
Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multisystem manifestations.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the approximate worldwide incid...
Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI).
Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
The etiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related d...
Hunter syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare genetic mucopolysaccharidosis disorder characterized by specific clinical features 1.
Hunter syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease and therefore much more common in males. It is a rare disorder wit...
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly where affected individuals can have profound cyanosis and cardiac failure.
It is one of the commonest causes for a neonate to present with congestive cardiac failure and the 4th most frequent cardiac anomaly to mani...
Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterized by:
multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw
café au lait spots
hypogonadism or cryptorchidism
giant cell granuloma of the jaw
Lutembacher syndrome refers to the association of an atrial septal defect (ASD) with mitral stenosis. Both the defects can be either congenital or acquired.
History and etymology
It is named after Rene Lutembacher 4.
Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease caused by a defect in the protein fibrillin 1, encoded for by the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular involvement with aortic root dilatation and dissection is the most feared complication of the disease.
The estimated prevalence is...
The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1.
There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome:
impaired glucose tolerance
Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterized by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder.
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of:
P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation)
A: arterial anomalies
C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Polysplenia syndrome, also known as left isomerism, is a type of heterotaxy syndrome where there are multiple spleens congenitally as part of left-sided isomerism.
Polysplenia is seen predominantly in female patients. It is usually diagnosed in childhood or adulthood, later than a...
Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex. It consists of:
persistence of the left superior vena cava
coronary sinus ostial atresia
atrial septal defect
It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement of the tricuspid an...
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RTSC), also known as 3C (cranio-cerebello-cardiac) syndrome, is a rare entity with a variable spectrum of CNS (primarily cerebellar), craniofacial, and congenital heart defects.
Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect.
History and etymology
Thiamine deficiency is caused by a low level of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body, and when severe, a deficiency may manifest in adults as beriberi.There are two main forms:
wet beriberi: high-output cardiac failure predominates
Shoshin beriberi 3: severe acute wet form with high mortality
Wellens syndrome (also referred to as LAD coronary T-wave syndrome) refers to an ECG pattern specific for critical stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery. The anomalies described occur in patients with recent anginal chest pain, and do not have chest pain when the ECG is record...
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by some or all of the following features:
craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies)
short stature (50% of cases)
mild to moderate intellectual disability
supravalvular aortic stenosis 2
pulmonary artery stenosis 3