Items tagged “mammography”

13 results found

Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) assessment category 2

BI-RADS 2 is a benign category in breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions or findings include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such as: o...

Frontal oblique approach mammography

Background Mammographic technique is very important to obtain diagnostic mammograms, to reduce the number of false negatives and to increase the sensitivity of the procedure. As widely noted in literature, most breast pathology occurs in the upper outer quadrant and is very important that this ...

Tent sign (breast)

The tent sign is a term referring to a characteristic appearance of the posterior edge of the breast parenchyma when a mass (usually an infiltrating lesion) causes its retraction and forms an inverted "V" that resembles the tip of a circus tent. The detection of a "tent sign" is facilitated by ...

Tangential views

Tangential views are useful to differentiate intracutaneous radiopaque particles in a tattoo from intraparenchymal microcalcifications. Mammographic findings close to the skin such as masses, microcalcifications, skin dimpling or shaded areas always pose a problem of differential diagnosis. Va...

Mediolateral oblique view

The mediolateral oblique (MLO) view is one of the two standard mammographic views, alongside the craniocaudal (CC) view.  It is the most important projection as it allows depiction of most breast tissue.  Adequacy The representation of the pectoral muscle on the MLO view is a key component in...

Lateromedial oblique view

A lateral-medial oblique (LMO) view is a type of supplementary mammographic view.  The advantage of performing the lateromedial view is to depict lesions located far medio-posteriorly visible on the CC view only, or to depict palpable lesions in the inner quadrant not seen on mammography. This...

Forbidden areas in mammography

In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation. These are: on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view the "Milky Way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle ...

Contrast-enhanced mammography

There are 2 types of contrast-enhanced mammography examination – temporal subtraction and dual-energy.  Initial work in the early 2000s used temporal subtraction, but artefacts due to patient movement during prolonged compression limited its diagnostic usefulness. Travieso et al produced a usef...

Double spot compression view

A double spot compression view is obtained by focal compression of both sides of the breast to produce higher spatial and contrast resolution. This is made possible due to the increased amount of breast thinning and a significant decreased incidence of blurring because of decreased exposure time...

Breast within a breast sign

The breast within a breast sign refers to the common mammographic appearance of breast hamartomas (fibroadenolipomas). Since these benign lesions are well-circumscribed and contain a mixture of fibrous, glandular and fatty tissue (just like normal breast), it is not surprising that they appear v...

Inframammary fold

The inframammary fold is the anatomical boundary formed at the inferior border of the breast, where it joins with the chest. In mammography, it is an important landmark to identify on the mediolateral oblique view to assess image quality.

Leborgne's law

Leborgne's law in mammography represents a classic clinical observation where the clinical (palpable) size of a malignant breast mass commonly exceeds the radiographic one 1. The peritumoral edema and/or desmoplastic reaction are thought to be the cause of this phenomenon.  The law has been des...

Compression in mammography

In mammography, compression of the breast is performed to reduce its thickness. By doing so, the following benefits are achieved: improved subject contrast (by reducing scattered radiation) improved density uniformity improved visualization of breast tissue near chest wall (by spreading out s...

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